Posts Tagged ‘KRS’

och glömmer Arktis historia (Lång text delvis på engelska)

För att förstå så tokigt det kan bli om en eller flera eller många forskare startar med den förutfattade meningen att jordens uppvärmning beror på människan, så kanske det är bäst att börja från början. Aldrig så skickliga systemprogrammerare kan inte säga något annat än vad vi sa i början på 70-talet ‘skit in’ -> ‘skit ut’ d.vs. INGA dataprogram i världen kan ge bättre Slutsatser (Conclusions) än de fakta uppgifter som sätts in. Hur många interpoleringar eller extrapoleringar som än görs kan inte slutdata bli säkra när felaktiga uppgifter laddas in OCH när forskare glömmer bort att undersöka sina slutsatser mot faktiskt uppmätta/kontrollerbara data.

Som t.ex. det där med Grönlands historia. För Grönland var grönt och bördigt från 890-talet och långt in på 1400-talet. Vissa delar av Grönland övergavs tidigare, det är sant. Men långt ifrån allt. Liten bosättning? Fel helt fel.

Här följer ett av mina många inlägg i debatten på soc.history.medieval och sci.archaeology under åren. Inlägget är från år 2000 och jag hoppas att Ni överser med att jag delvis är dyslektiker (svårt med stavning och grammatik) samt att engelska inte är mitt andra utan mitt tredje språk (farmor norska).
The Norse Greenlanders vinland and KRS.

© Johansson Inger E, Gothenburg March 2000.

The story of Vinland have fascinated many people of the year. For many years the Icelandic Sagas was believed to the true source of the Vinland adventure. The existence of other sources, regardless if they where written Primary sources or results of excavations in the North American territories was thought to be slim. Than the site at L’Anse aux Meadows was found and voila – that site became believed to have been the mythic Vinland. As I pointed out in FROM VINLAND to the Kensingtone-runestone sent to this group in January, there are more solid proof of the Norse(and maybe other Europeans) in the Northern American area than that long before the Icelandic Sagas was written during the 13th-14th Century
In January 6th 1053 Pope Leo IX wrote a letter to Adalbert Archbishop of Hamburg Bremen ”….. in omnibus gentibus Sueonum seu Danorum, Norunechorum, Islant, Scrideuinnum, Gronlant et universarum septentrionalum racionum”
In other words Pope Leo IX acknowledge in the far outer parts of the Ocean was Greenland and the land further beyond that close to the border to the Universe.

The Norse settlements in Greenland started at latest around 1000 AD and continued until 1500 AD(se below) and during all those Centuries many Norse Greenlanders built their farms and their churches in Eastern Greenland as well as in Western Greenland. As Tomas McGovern wrote: ”The archaeological data indicate that the Norse Greenlanders did invest a great deal of their source resources in churchconstruction, and that the most powerful economic unit of the later Norse Greenland was the manor at Garðar.” Ref. McGovern Thomas H., Bones, Building and Boundaries: Palaeoeconomic Approaches to Norse Greenland page 222

But there is more to be said in regards of Gardar: We know for a fact that a Greenlandic monestry remained intact 22 June 1308 when Bishop Arne of Bergen wrote a letter to Bishop Þordr in Gardar. Bishop Þordr wasn’t the first Bishop of Greenland, we know of at least one more by the name of Gnurri from the late 10th Century or early 11th Century.

GardarGarðar wasn’t only the center of the Norse Greenlandic Churches, nor only a big farm, the biggest in Greenland, with a 131 m² big Hall, a 389 m² Byre, a 353 m² Barn and a Storage as big as 361 m². Garðar and Brattalið( Hall 66 m², Byre 127 m², Barn 105 m² and Storage 118 m²) are supposed to have been stores for the rest of the Greenlandic settlements, as well as major centres for cattle production. ”If we combine these two ratio measures in common scalter plot….a separation of Garðar and the Brattalið sites from all others in the sample becomes apparent. These seem to be major centres of cattle production and goods storage out of all proportions to their proxy measure of consumption” Ref. McGovern Thomas H, page 215

McGovern continues on page 217: ”The large site at W45 may possibly contain the missing churchfarm of the Western settlement, through investigations have not revealed a church building and a graveyard.”

Eastern and western settlements
A churchbuilding and a graveyard – there are more of those in both Western and Eastern Greenland Settlements than we have been led to believe by Scholars discussing the Norse Settlements north of Canada.

But before we continue to look into them it might be good looking at some sites in Western Settlements. While the mean hall in the Eastern Settlements is around 56 m² the same type of hall has a total mean value of 28 m², as for the total mean of Byres eastern Settlements 87 m² and 27 m² in the western Settlements, Barns in eastern S. had a total mean 85 m² and in Western Settlements the Barns had a total mean of 36 m² the storage mean values was lower in west as well. Lets look at two of the farms in the west Greenland Settlements: Sandnes(W51) Hall 72 m², Byre 84 m² and Barn 155 m²; and Anavik(W7) Hall ?, Byre 50 m², Barn 54 m² and Storage 38 m². Ref McGovern, Table 6 Floor-area of selected structures of farms of the Eastern and Western Settlements, page 213

In fact the Norse settlers in Greenland settled almost everywhere it was possible to build a farm from Disco Bay in northern Western Settlements to the Eastern Settlements. ”The Norse settlements is grouped around the innerparts of the fjords and the inland between them”…..”The farms are situated at practically all of the suitable places, near rivers and lakes”……. ”The other densely settled area is situated on the large penisula that stretches between the Igalino Fjord and Lichtenan Fjord (Agdluitsup Lamgerdlua) out into Davis trait”……….”ca 40 farms have been found in this district”. Ref Jansen Henrik M, page 74

”A part from a few isolated localities far south at Naujat in Fiskenæsfjorden and Eqaluitin Agdlumersat(where nodwellings have been found however), as well as a single farm at the head of Bulesefjord, the Norse Settlement in Western Settlements(Map II) is gathered quite closely around the innerbranches of Godthåbsfjord and Ameralik, as well as in the valleys that are connected with these fjords”. Ref. Jansen Henrik, page 75

Greenland farmers and food
How did the Norse Greenlanders build their farms, what material did they use and from where? Henrik Jansen gives following answer: ”The building materials employed are typical of those used in Western Norway and the Atlantic Islands: turf, stone and timber. The houses were built of stone or turf alone or a combination of the two materials”.Ref: Jansen Henrik page 78

Typical houses whether built in turf, stone or timber are described to be rectangular and distinctively different from those built by Eskimos/Inuits and others.
Note: Compare the Norse Greenlanders houses with the houses built by the Blackduck population in the Lake Woodland in Northern Wisconsin close to the Lake Michigan. Where the building pattern changed between 800-1000 AD from round house/huts to long-houses built of turf. The Blackduck population’s building was distinctively different from those living close by. Ref: Mason Ronaldy, Great Lakes Archaeology, NY 1981

Where did the Norse settlers in Western Greenland go for timber? First of all I would like you to look at the strong streams from west due to the Earth rotation the streams goes behind the Canadian mainland and the Islands north of it. Jansen Henrik notes that the timber came to Greenland either as float-timber from the Siberian area transported by Sea or that the Norse Greenlanders went to Markland for timber. Jansen referes to an Islandic Annal from 1347 AD still existing. Jansen’s note 86, with reference to ”Islandske annaler til 1578” 1888 page 213 under 1347 AD(Skalhóltann):
”Þa kom di skp af Grænlandi/minna at vexti enu sma Islandz fór. Þat kom i Straum/fjord inn yttra. Þat var akkeris laust þar voru a xvij menn ok hofðu farit till Marklandz enn siðan vorðit hingat hafreka.” Jansen’s translation from Old-Norse: ”Then a vessel, small sized, came from Greenland to Iceland. It came to Straumfjord. It had lost it’s anchor; they were 17 men and they had sailed to Markland but thereafter they were driven hither(i.e. Iceland)”
Ref.Jansen Henrik, page 78

In my previous Essay sent to this group[sci.archaeology] I referred to Adam of Bremen as a Prime source seldom used in regards of Vinland and Halogaland. Some mailers have noted that they believe Halogaland of Adam’s to be the same as Helgeland area in Norway, but then they haven’t read Adam of Bremens chapter 38’s lines about Halogaland.

Not only did they in Halogaland have summer- and midwinter solstice, but the ”Danish king”[Svein Estridsson] had tested that the same kind of solstice was to be seen in Halogaland as well as in the land of the Sweons and the Northland and other Islands in that area….

Adam of Bremen, Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum, book 4:
Chapter 37 Adam of Bremen writes about Greenland
Chapter 38 about the Island of Halogaland(in other languages spelt ”Halagland” respectively ”Helluland”
Chapter 39, Adam of Bremen writes about Vinland.
As you know both Halogaland and Markland are told to have been areas the Norse passed by before reaching Vinland. What other indications, written sources or artifacts found during excavations can give more evidence in regards of the Vinland location? Yes there are more facts to be presented. The Norse Greenlanders arthaeofauna doesn’t look like that in Iceland nor does it resemble the arthaeofauna of the Eskimo/Inuits or the Indians. The only thing that resembles the situation in Iceland is the domestic mammals: Cattle, sheep, goat, pig, dog and horse.(McGovern Tomas H, page 195).
McGovern also writes on page 199: ”All Greenlandic Norse sites have a far greater proportion of goat bones than is common in medieval Iceland archaeogauna(Amorosi 1991) or in the rest of Scandinavian North Atlantics”.

And in regards of the cows McGovern writes: (page 201):” In combination with documentary references and the abundant dairying artefact asseble(Rousell 1936) it seem likely that cattle were kept primarily for their milk rather than as meat animals in both settlements”.[The Western and the Eastern Greenland Settlements].
page 195: ”While fish remains are present in the Greenlandic archaeofauna, they are extremely rare”. Eastern settlements mean NISP% = 0,08 and Western Settlements mean NSIP% = 0,12
Page 198: Pigs are rare in Greenland, but are present in several collections. The fragments include very young animals and elements unlikely to have been imported as pork. Pigs seem to have been kept more frequently in the earlier phases of larger farms but were never common Ref: Mc Govern Thomas H, Bones, Building and Boundaries: Palaeoeconomic Approaches to Norse Greenland

So what was the main food the Norse Greenlanders consumed? Jansen Henrik gives a clue: ”Generally speaking, ca ¾ of the investigated bones are representative of game animals; thus only ¼ of domestic animals. This is actually most surprising, considering the large farm complexes. It is even more surprising, however that the same situation applies to those farms that are located far away from the sea for example in Austmannadalen in the Western Settlement”.Ref: Jansen Henrik M, A critical account of the written and archaeological sources’ evidence concerning the Norse settlements in Greenland, Meddelelser om Grönland 182:4, 1972

In a Table McGovern gives following information in re. ”Major taxa of larger Greenlandic archaeofauna”: The cattle mean in Eastern Settlements 16,7%, Caprines 32,1%, Caribou[North American reindeer] 2,1% and Seals 48,8%. But there is a notable difference in regards of the Western Settlements: Cattle mean 8,2%, Caprines 16,5%, Caribou 18,3%[note this percentage] and seals 57,0%. Mc Govern writes: ”Caribou bone(and other craftwaste, not included in the NISP counts) is much more common on Western Settlement sites, of all sizes and through out all phases of occupation”.[i.e. Norse occupation] Ref. McGovern page 197.

As clearly documented by Morten Meldgaard(1986), West Greenland caribou are subject to population fragmentation along the long, fjord – indented coastline, and individual populations are subject to both long term and short term boom-crash cycles. Population morbidity is to some degree indicated by stature and robusticity. The historic Northeast Greenland caribou and saqqaq-period caribou from Itivnera(U.Møhl 1972) show marked dwarfism.[!] By the Norse times, the West Greenland caribou in both settlement areas had apparently recovered. All elements excavated are large and robust, with many of the Western Settlement caribou specimens overlapping the size range of Norse cattle(McGovern and Amorori 1986).”
Ref. McGovern, page 203

These ”lager and robust” caribou must either have been hunted elsewhere or made their way only to the Western Greenland settlements during the Norse Greenlanders earlier phases. In the first case we do have a solid proof that the Norse made it to the North American mainland’s parts except from the site at L’Anse aux Meadows. In the later case it’s highly unlikely that wild reindeer wouldn’t have made it all over Greenland or that the Norse Greenlanders’ farmsites in the Eastern Settlement would have had at least some of the same ”robust” bones in their remains as the Western Settlements if the Western Settlement hadn’t had closer contact with the areas surronding either Hudson Bay or Western North-Canada.

Given all information above it’s more than likely that the land of Halogaland, Markland and Vinland is situated closer to Greenland than L’Anse aux Meadows is. The later site is also, in my opinion, too small and have given too few artifacts showing a long term hunting in that surroundings.

I find it more than likely that Halogaland and Vinland are to be found in the inner parts of Northern America, possibly found by waterways from Hudson Bay………” abstract from an article sent to sci.archaeology and soc.history medieval

_____________ slut på utdraget min artikel till sci.archaeology från 2000 ———

Verklighetens Grönlänningar var mellan 3500 och 5000 personer som levde samtidigt under höjdpunkten fram till 1360. Verklighetens Grönlänningar seglade långt upp mot Nordpolen och rester, artifakter från deras resor västerut via Ellesmere Island (slå upp) och Ruin Island (kolla nordiska artifakter funna i husen som trots att de är byggda som övernattningshusen på tomtningarna längs Västerhavets kust från Vrångö och upp långt i Norge visserligen sägs vara samtida men  inte nordiska. (Nåväl murtekniken tål att diskuteras)

Verkligheten är också den att Grönlänningarna exporterade så mycket via olika handelsvägar, främst via Bergen och Orkney som den Norske kungen (Svenske kungen Magnus Eriksson var också norsk kung) krävde, att det är ett under att inte samtliga klimatforskare tycks ha missat att kolla lokalhistorian från Grönland, åtminstone från Västerbyggden och Österbyggden. Men det är värre än så.

Hur i jösse namn lyckas man som klimatforskare missa att den första vetenskapliga expeditionen som med något så när säkerhet mätte temperatur, vind och erosion mer än 2 mil, 20 km in från Arktis yttersta kust skedde först 1959? Hur kan man missa att Nordpolen inte ens fick mänskligt besök före år 1900? Så var ifrån får man sina underbara data om världens temperaturhöjning från 1880-nu? Iskärnor säger någon…. Tja nu var det ju bara det som vem som helst som suttit med lite aktivt lyssnande på fysik, geografi och historia vet – is är inte ett fast tillstånd. Is rör på sig – vattnets kretslopp, har NI glömt det? Centifugalkraften? Vattnet försöker ta sig till den lägsta möjliga nivån så snabbt som möjligt. Centifugalkraften innebär att snö som faller ner, både kan blåsa, erodera, frysa och förflyttas långa avstånd på bara några år. DET FINNS INGENSTANS MÖJLIGHET ATT UTIFRÅN ISKÄRNOR FÅ TEMPERATUR PÅ EN SPECIFIK PLATS I ARKTIS ENS 30 ÅR tillbaka. Kolla hur forskningsstationerna förflyttats på ytan så får Ni svar svart på vitt hur tokigt det är att inte ta med Arktis historia i beräkningen innan Ni gör Era interpoleringar i datorn.

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